Science & Research

The ACC Olefins Panel has a long history of conducting scientific research and communicating critical information to stakeholders, including regulatory agencies in the U.S and abroad, in order to better understand the hazards and risks potentially associated with exposures to Olefins. This includes studies related to understanding the hazard potential and /or exposure scenarios for 1, 3-butadiene and ethylene.

Extensive Research & Risk Communication

Reproductive and Developmental Endpoints: In response to US EPA's High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program HPV program members of the ACC Olefins Panel submitted important information to the EPA regarding 1, 3-butadiene. The Panel submitted reports of categories pertaining to 1, 3-butadiene, and in support of these categories presented the EPA with two important repeat exposure studies. These are important studies because they add to the understanding of the effects of 1, 3-butadiene on reproductive and developmental endpoints after repeated exposure, as well as using the inhalation exposure route, which represents the primary exposure route to humans:

  • An OECD 422 guideline study (reproductive and developmental toxicity screen) using crude 1, 3-butadiene (containing 10% 1, 3-butadiene ) and
  • An OECD 421 guideline study (reproductive and developmental toxicity screen) using BD of >99% purity. Other toxicology test results are also described in these HPV submittals.

National Academy of Sciences – Science and Decisions report and recommendations: As a result of an EPA sponsored initiative to modernize risk assessment methodology in conjunction with the National Academy of Sciences - Science and Decisions report and recommendations,1 the ACC Olefins Panel had sponsored a risk assessment project by C.R. Kirman and R.L. Grant to better understand ovarian atrophy in rodents.2 Ovarian atrophy is one of the non-cancer effects of 1, 3-butadiene in mice, an extremely sensitive species towards 1, 3-butadiene.

Biomarkers for Assessing Occupational Exposures: To better understand measures of human exposures to 1, 3-butadiene and the potential to observe exposure outcomes, Albertini, et al.3 examined Czech workers exposed to 1, 3-butadiene.

Epidemiology Endpoints: The current assessment of 1, 3-butadiene now communicated on the EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database is out of date, and more recent and more robust assessments are now available. The ACC Olefins Panel has worked with the International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers (IISRP) to evaluate health outcomes of workers in the Styrene Butadiene Rubber production industry vi a series of epidemiology assessments by the University of Alabama – Birmingham (UAB).  In addition, the Olefins Panel and the ACC 1, 3-Butadiene TSCA Risk Evaluation Consortium have several on-going studies to further understand and characterize the epidemiology assessments.

Toxicology Studies: The Olefins Panel has worked with University of Vermont and University of Minnesota researchers to understand toxicological mechanisms of 1, 3-Butadiene

Scientific Symposia: In an effort to fully engage the scientific community regarding health hazards and risks that might be associated with exposure to 1, 3-butadiene, the ACC Olefins Panel worked with many researchers and regulatory agencies in providing a forum for discussion via a series of symposia ( 1990,4 1995,5 2005,6 20147) as well as via the publication of useful toxicology reviews.8,9,10

Additional Information



» Download PDF of Butadiene Product Summary



1 National Research Council. 2009. Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/12209.  

2 Quantitative human health risk assessment for 1, 3-butadiene based upon ovarian effects in rodents Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 62(2), pages 371-384, 2012. 

3 Albertini RJ, rám RJ, Vacek PM, Lynch J, Wright M, Nicklas JA, Boogaard PJ, Henderson RF, Swenberg JA, Tates AD, Ward JB Jr. 2001. Biomarkers for assessing occupational exposures to 1, 3-Butadiene. Chem Biol Interact 135-136:429-453, and a report from the Health Effects Institute - regarding further evaluation of Czech workers  

4 Melnick, R. L., Huff, J. E., Bird, M. G., & Acquavella, J. F. (1990). Symposium overview: toxicology, carcinogenesis, and human health aspects of 1, 3-butadiene.

5 Loser, E., & Tordoir, W. F. (1996). Evaluation of butadiene and isoprene health risks Proceedings of the International Symposium held in Blaine, Washington on June 27-29, 1995-Foreword.

6 Himmelstein, M. W., Baan, R. A., Albertini, R. J., Bird, M. G., & Lewis, R. J. (2007). International Symposium on the Evaluation of Butadiene and Chloroprene Health Risks.

7 Cagen, S., & McGraw J.L. (2015) Understanding the Health Risks of Lower Olefins

8 Critical Reviews in Toxicology Volume 40, supplement 1, 2010:  1, 3-Butadiene: I. Review of metabolism and the implications to human health risk assessment. Christopher R. Kirman, Richard J. Albertini, Lisa M. Sweeney & Michael L. Gargas Pages 1-11.

9 1, 3-Butadiene: II. Genotoxicity profile Richard J. AlbertiniM. Leigh CarsonChristopher R. Kirman &  Michael L. Gargas Pages: 12-73

10 1, 3-Butadiene: III. Assessing carcinogenic modes of action Christopher R. KirmanRichard A. Albertini &  Michael L. Gargas pages: 74-92.

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