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Panel: Doug Anderson
Media: Lisa Dry

The PA—Product Approval Protocol Task Group (PAPTG) is a separately funded task group of the Petroleum Additives Panel that focuses research and advocacy efforts related to automotive lubricant additives. PAPTG member companies are active developers, manufacturers or marketers of performance enhancing chemicals for use in automotive lubricants. Typical performance enhancing chemicals include:

Viscosity Index Improvers (VI Improvers)

VI improvers are used to so the oil does not become too thin when heating or too thick when cooling. Three major types of VI improvers include: ploymethacrylates (PMAs), ethylene-propylene copolymers and terpolymers (OCP) and hydrogenated styrene-isoprene block polymers (HSP). Additionally, polyisobutylenes (PIBs), styrene-polybutadiene (SPB) and styrene-polyester (SPE) have been used commercially.


Dispersants are used to control sludge build up. Three types include: succinimides, succinate esters and mannich-based (beta-amino-ketone) products.

Code of Practice Resources


Detergents neutrilze acid formed from oxidation of sulfur. Three types include sulfonates, phenates and salicylates.

Extreme-pressure/antiwear agents

Prevent metal to metal wear. Zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) is most well known antiwear agent.  Dithiocarbamates and molybdenum disulfide are other types.


Prevent minimize varnish and sludge. Types include ZDDP, hindered phenols, alkyl diphenylamines and substituted phenylene diamines.

Antifoam agent
Friction modifiers
Fatty acid derivatives and molybdenum disulfide
Metal deactivators
N,N-disalicylidene and 1,2-propanediamine
Pour-point depressants
Rust-corrosion inhibitors
Alkenylsuccinic anhydrides and dinonylnaphthalene sulfonates


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More than 800,000 Americans rely on jobs in the chemistry industry—earning 47 percent more than the average manufacturing wage.