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Fire Safety & Building Codes

Laura Dickemann

Polyurethane materials are organic and—like other organic materials such as wood, paper, cotton, wool, and many others—can ignite and burn if exposed to a sufficient heat source. Organic foam insulation, regardless of whether the foam contains fire retardants, should be considered combustible and handled accordingly. Precautions should be taken to minimize any potential for fire through accidental ignition in handling, storage and use. How polyurethane or polyisocyanurate (polyiso) foams are used ultimately helps determine their fire safety. When used in furniture and bedding, flexible polyurethane foams (FPFs) are generally matched with fabric coverings and liners that may influence the combustibility of the finished article.

In the building and construction industry, polyurethane and polyiso foams are regulated through fire codes, the model building codes and state and local governments. Model and local building codes are used throughout the United States to provide guidance and requirements for the safe use of materials and systems used in buildings. They are considered “living documents” that are updated and changed on a regular basis. Building codes help safeguard life and protect the public welfare by regulating design, construction practices, construction material quality (including fire performance), location, occupancy, and maintenance of buildings and structures. When regulating materials, many of the model building codes refer to consensus standards for products or tests developed by standard-setting organizations such as ASTM International and the National Fire Protection Association. Some building codes and insurance rating organizations also rely on test information from testing laboratories such as Factory Mutual Global and Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.

Adopting a National Standard for Residential Upholstered Furniture

CPI supports consumer access to upholstered furniture that is designed to minimize the risk from residential fire hazards. This can be achieved through the development of a technically sound, effective national flammability standard that addresses the following concepts:

  • Test and evaluation procedures with appropriate ignition hazards relevant for upholstered furniture.
  • Requirements should be performance-based and relevant for upholstered furniture constructions intended for residential use.
  • Requirements should apply to all residential upholstered furniture, regardless of the materials used in construction.
  • Test procedures and performance criteria should be robust and practical for furniture components, models and finished furnishings.
  • Requirements should include appropriate labeling provisions for furniture (or covered items).

To learn more about furnishings flammability and FPF, visit the Polyurethane Foam Association’s Website.

Improving and Promoting Fire Safety

To address fire safety concerns, CPI encourages educational efforts on general fire safety principles for the home including:

  • Proper use of fire and smoke detectors;
  • Proper use of fire suppression systems; and
  • Proper handling of potential ignition sources.

Polyurethanes are essential to many products and have been long used in the upholstered furniture and building and construction market sectors. Whether using fireproofing materials to reduce the flame spread in bedding and mattresses, or thermal insulation to reduce the flow of heat through the thickness of a material, polyurethanes will continue to serve these industries well into the future, and CPI members support fire safety regulations that help reduce the incidences of fire-related injuries and deaths.

During Combustion

As with many common household goods, items containing polyurethane may become involved in a fire. All combustible materials produce toxic smoke when burned. The toxicity of smoke can be relevant as it is one of many factors affecting the ability of people to escape from a fire.

There are misconceptions that smoke from a fire that involves polyurethane products poses a significantly greater health risk than from other synthetic or natural materials because hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is present in the smoke. HCN is produced whenever nitrogen containing materials are burned, including polyurethanes and other common materials such as sheep’s wool. However, in terms of hazard, carbon monoxide (CO) is typically by far the most abundant toxicant in fires under almost all combustion conditions.

Building Codes, Standards, and Test Methods

CPI is dedicated to supporting the highest quality building codes and standards worldwide. CPI members advocate in front of various code groups including ASTM International, ICC, ISO, NFPA and more. Codes and standards for building and construction make enormous contributions to most aspects of our lives—from product quality, reliability, efficiency and safety.

Codes and standards are useful to industrial and business organizations of all types, from governments and other regulatory bodies, to trade officials, to suppliers and customers of products and services in both public and private sectors, and, ultimately, to people in general in their roles as consumers and end users.

Knowledge of codes and standards is essential to companies in the building and construction field. Codes mandate or encourage increased energy efficiency, resulting in the use of more and better insulation. Polyurethane insulation and other building products can help achieve those energy efficiency requirements. Many U.S. cities, counties and states that adopt codes have adopted the International Codes or “I” codes, which are building codes developed by the International Code Council (ICC). The ICC develops codes used to construct residential and commercial buildings, including homes and schools.

Learn More:

Polyurethane-related Codes, Specifications, Standards and Test Methods:

Polyurethane Raw Materials Test Methods

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